Холотропное дыхание и ребефинг
Холо-ребефинг — усовершенствованные дыхательные техники

Научные публикации


Козлов В., Бубеев Ю. — Экспериментальные психофизиологические и нейропсихологические исследования интенсивного дыхания

Нами проведено комплексное исследование физиологических систем организма:

- Функции внешнего дыхания, газообмена, энергетики и метаболизма изучались на спироэргометрической системе «2900» («SensorMedics», США). Она позволяла исследовать более 100 параметров дыхания за каждый дыхательный цикл (breath by breath). Спирометрические показатели определялись с помощью масс-флоуметра. Парциальное давление кислорода и углекислого газа в выдыхаемом воздухе измерялось циркониевым и инфракрасным датчиком.

- Парциальное давление кислорода и углекислого газа в тканях определялось транскутально с помощью прибора фирмы «Radiometеr» (Дания).

- Функциональное состояние сердечно-сосудистой системы оценивалось по результатам непрерывного мониторирования ЭКГ и импедансной тетраполярной реографии с помощью реоанализатора. Ударный объем измерялся по методу Кубичека. Артериальное давление измерялось ежеминутно с помощью автоматического устройства тахоосциллографическим методом (AVSM 2000 — Россия) и по методу Короткова.

- Состав тела оценивался по данным калиперометрии.

 

Козлов В. — Экспериментальные исследования влияния интенсивного дыхания на личность и группу

Вне сомнения, теоретические модели, используемые при работе с расширенными состояниями сознания, представляют большой интерес. Но для научного анализа холотропного дыхания большее значение мы придавали точным исследованиям. В течение девяти лет нами была предпринята попытка анализа нашего объекта на следующих уровнях: психофизиологии, психологии, социальной психологии.

 

Козлов В. — Экспериментальные исследования связного дыхания

Проведенные многолетние эксперименты позволили сделать выводы:

1. Анализ диапазона изменения физиологических показателей свидетельствует об отсутствии сильных физиологических нагрузок на человеческий организм во время процесса связного дыхания.

2. Анализ ряда приведенных показателей /ВИК и КГР/ свидетельствует о наличии сдвига баланса симпатического и парасимпатического отделов нервной системы в сторону активации парасимпатического отдела. Этот факт является косвенным подтверждением гармонизации нервных процессов в организме в процессе занятий естественным связным дыханием.

 

И.С. Бреслав, Л.А. Брянцева — Дыхание — ключ к здоровью. Мифы и реальность

Автор жестко критикует ненаучные подходы насильственного исправления дыхания (Бутейко, Фролов, Стрельникова), предлагая взамен безопасные способы обретения здоровья и эмоционального баланса через йогические практики анатомически эффективного дыхания. 

 

И.Д. Бреслав, А.Д. Ноздрачев — Регуляция дыхания: висцеральная и поведенческая составляющие

В обзоре разграничиваются два аспекта регуляции дыхания: с одной стороны — это автономная регуляция дыхания как висцеральной функции, обеспечивающей метаболические нужды организма путем поддержания постоянства внутренней дыхательной среды; с другой стороны — поведенческая регуляция дыхания под контролем произвольной сферы. Большое внимание уделяется нерешенной пока проблеме дыхательного ритмогенеза, а также механизму точного сопряжения легочной вентиляции с уровнем метаболизма, в частности, при мышечной нагрузке. Рассматривается взаимодействие висцеральных и поведенческих механизмов регуляции дыхания.

 

И.С. Бреслав, Н.И. Волков, Р.В. Тамбовцева — Дыхание и мышечная активность человека в спорте

Руководство по физиологии дыхания представляет синтез современных представлений о физиологических и биохимических процессах, обусловливающих газообмен в тканях и эффективную регуляцию организменных функций, направленных на поддержание газового гомеостаза при мышечной активности. Авторы руководства – проф. И.С. Бреслав (Цефат, Израиль), проф. Н.И. Волков и проф. Р.В. Тамбовцева (Москва, Россия) – известные специалисты в области физиологии дыхания и биохимии мышечной деятельности. В книге наряду с изложением основ физиологии дыхания человека подробно освещаются вопросы сопряженности функций тканевого дыхания, транспорта газов с кровью и легочной респирации при мышечной работе. Приводятся результаты экспериментального изучения динамики респираторных функций в различных условиях мышечной деятельности и установления взаимосвязи параметров легочной вентиляции с показателями энергетической стоимости упражнения и состоянием физической работоспособности человека.

 

Афанасенко И.В., Емельяненко В.А., Емельяненко А. — Духовная трансформация: качественно-количественный анализ применения метода холотропного дыхания

Данная статья посвящена качественному и количественному анализу использования холотропного дыхания (ХД) в качестве эффективного метода поддержки клиента в процессе его/ее духовной трансформации. Мы выделяем три модели интеграции духовного опыта: религиозный, медицинский и феноменологический. Обычно первые две модели основаны на внешней формальной оценке субъективных чувств клиента, когда его/ее состояние ума не способствует социальной адаптации. Мы рассматриваем ХД, используя феноменологическую модель как экологический метод самореализации и психотерапии с точки зрения интеграции полученного духовного опыта. Психологическое исследование, оценивающее динамику жизненных конструктов и категорий субъектов в результате их участия в сессиях ХД подтверждают долгосрочные наблюдения практиков, применяющих этот метод. Субъективная значимость отрицательных категорий жизни значительно уменьшается, а возрастают следующие категории: уверенность в себе, доверие к людям и миру, значимость жизни, удовлетворенность и способность чувствовать радость и счастье. Результаты настоящего исследования дают некоторую поддержку эффективности использования ХД в процессе духовной трансформации клиентов.

 

В.В. Ахметова, А.И. Колчин, Н.В. Говорин — Электроэнцефалографические корреляты эффективности трансперсональной психотерапии при невротических депрессиях

На основе результатов обследования 157 больных с невротической депрессией (по МКБ-10 шифры F43.20, F43.21, F43.22) определены электроэнцефалографические критерии эффективности трансперсональной психотерапии: повышение спектральной плотности (СП) α3-активности в лобно-височных областях и снижение СП θ-активности в теменно-центрально-затылочных и префронтальных зонах, а также изменения в β-диапазоне частот (увеличение СП β1 в лобно-височных и префронтальных и снижение β2 в теменно-затылочных областях мозга). Направленность указанных изменений ЭЭГ объективно подтверждается клинической динамикой и данными корреляционного анализа нейрофизиологических параметров и показателей психометрических шкал, использованных для оценки наличия и выраженности эмоционально-личностных нарушений.

 

Байшукурова А.К. — Образование 2,3-ДФГ в эритроцитах при экспериментальных воздействиях, изменяющих условия транспорта кислорода

В эритроцитах существует своя система ауто­регуляции сродства гемоглобина к кислороду, активность которой определяется количеством восстановленного гемоглобина, то есть потребностью организма в кислороде. Имеются основания считать, что повышение концентрации 2,3-ДФГ в эритроцитах человека и жи­вотных при гипоксии является одним из адаптивных механизмов, улучшающих доставку кислорода к тканям

 

М.Н.Пилипенко, И.П.Шлапак — «За» и «против» использования гипервентиляции и ПДКВ при проведении респираторной поддержки у нейрохирургических больных

Детально рассмотрены особенности проведения респираторной поддержки у больных с тяжелой черепно-мозговой травмой и острыми нарушениями мозгового кровообращения, для которых характерны такие осложнения, как повышение внутричерепного давления, вазоспазм крупных мозговых сосудов, вазогенный отек мозга. Ключевыми факторами ИВЛ являются положительное давление в конце выдоха и гипервентиляция. Эти же факторы являются и наиболее противоречивыми и дискутабельными у больных с нестабильной внутричерепной ситуацией.

 

И.А. Шурыгин — Мониторинг дыхания: Пульсоксиметрия, капнография, оксиметрия

Подробно рассмотрены технические, физиологические и клинические аспекты трех основных методов — пульсоксиметрии, капнографии и оксиметрии. Большое внимание уделено способам правильной интерпретации данных мониторинга в различных клинических ситуациях.

 

Михаил Батин — Как устроена депрессия?

Классификация депрессивных расстройств; роль моноаминов (дофамина, норадреналина и серотонина); механизмы действия антидепрессантов; депрессия, стресс и нейропластичность.

 

Википедия — Посттравматическое стрессовое расстройство

ПТСР — тяжёлое психическое состояние, возникающее в результате единичного или повторяющихся событий, оказывающих сверхмощное негативное воздействие на психику индивида. Травматичность события тесно связана с ощущением собственной беспомощности из-за невозможности эффективно действовать в опасной ситуации.

 

Питер Гётше — Смертельно опасные лекарства и организованная преступность: как большая фарма коррумпировала здравоохранение

Что вы знаете о лекарствах? Только то, что о них говорят продавцы и доктора. Между тем лекарства — третья по частоте причина смерти после болезней сердца и рака. Питер Гётше уже более 10 лет разоблачает фармацевтических гигантов, делая всё, чтобы снять человечество с их крючка. Специалист по проверке эффективности лекарств из некоммерческой организации «Кокрейновское сотрудничество», Гётше вместе с коллегами профессионально доказывает, какие лекарства не просто не лечат, но наносят вред здоровью или даже несуr угрозу для жизни.

 

Peter C. Gøtzsche — Deadly psychiatry and organised denial

Professor, Doctor of Medical Science, Peter C. Gøtzsche documents that psychiatric drugs kill more than half a million people every year among those aged 65 and above in the United States and Europe. This makes psychiatric drugs the third leading cause of death, after heart disease and cancer. Gøtzsche explains that we could reduce our current usage of psychotropic drugs by 98% and at the same time improve patients’ mental and physical health and survival. It can be difficult, however, to come off the drugs, as many people become dependent on them. As the withdrawal symptoms can be severe, long-lasting and even dangerous, slow tapering is usually necessary.

 

James Eyerman — A clinical report of Holotropic Breathwork in 11,000 psychiatric inpatients in a community hospital setting

11,000 psychiatric inpatients from a variety of psychiatric units dedicated to various diagnoses participated in Holotropic Breathwork over 12 years at community hospital.

 

James Eyerman — Holotropic Breathwork: models of mechanism of action

Objectives: critical review of etiological theories of phenomena reported in Holotropic Breath-work [HB]. Method: literature on Holotropic Breathwork, hyperventilation syndrome, polyvagal theory, SARs theory, classical mytho-poetic traditions, the role of music, anomalous experiences and healing, and classical psycho-spiritual explanatory models are reviewed. Discussion: physiological and neurophysiological models, transpersonal, and cognitive psychological models, ethno-epistemological problems and methodological concerns are reviewed. Narrative logic versus stochastic models is ex-amined. Conclusions: voluntary over-breathing and music provide access to non-ordinary states through the putative effects of vagal toning and sonic integration. Cognitive processes may play a role in permit-ting the anomalous internal narrative experiences.

 

Sara W. Holmes, Robin Morris, Pauline Rose Clance, R. Thompson Putney — Holotropic Breathwork: an experiential approach to psychotherapy

The study investigated the relationship between the use of Holotropic Breathwork and therapeutic changes in levels of distress associated with self identified problems, death anxiety, self esteem, and sense of affiliation with others. Two groups of 24 subjects were compared using a repeated measures design. One group participated in a combination of experientially oriented psychotherapy plus six monthly sessions of Holotropic Breathwork (Breathwork Group), the second group participated only in experientially oriented psychotherapy (Therapy Group). Dependent measures were Templer’s Death Anxiety Scale, the Abasement and Affiliation subscales of the Personality Research Form-E, and a questionnaire regarding self-identified problems. The Breathwork Group showed significant reductions in death anxiety and increases in self-esteem compared to the Therapy Group. No significant differences were observed between groups on affiliation or self-identified problems. Results suggest that experiential approaches to psychotherapy may be useful in ameliorating some types of psychological ptoblems.

 

Laurel Watjen — An argument for the use of Holotropic Breathwork as an adjunct to psychotherapy

The psychoanalytic viewpoint proposes that insight into one’s unconscious thoughts, feelings, and motiva-tions can be helpful in understanding and changing personal constructs (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2013). Converse-ly, anything that stands in the way of accessing that material may present a barrier to effective psychotherapy. Holo-tropic Breathwork, a process of rapid, deep breathing to evocative music, induces a non-ordinary state of conscious-ness (NOSC) (Taylor, 2007), which reportedly allows deeper access to the unconscious. Rhinewine and Williams (2007) offer a hypothetical, bio-psychological explanation of the disinhibiting mechanism of holotropic NOSC’s, which reduce the self-protectiveness of the logical/thinking part of the brain, and potentially result in opening to new insights. Ryan and Deci’s (2008) Self-determination Theory (SDT) model offers a current and accepted framework from which to explain the potential effectiveness of the therapeutic setting and practice of HB. SDT proposes that there are three universal psychological needs which are essential for the occurrence of growth toward psychological health and well-being: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. This paper describes how Holotropic Breathwork ful-fills those three needs, potentially resulting in therapeutic benefit. An overview of research on the healing benefits of NOSC’s, and in particular, on the use of HB as an adjunct to psychotherapy is included to support the argument that HB may be beneficial in this context.

 

Joseph P. Rhinewine, Oliver J. Williams — Holotropic Breathwork: the potential role of a prolonged, voluntary hyperventilation procedure as an adjunct to psychotherapy

The neurophysiology and psychology of hyperventilation are reviewed, including findings demonstrating that hyperventilation leads to significant changes in central nervous system activity as measured by various technological means. Preliminary evidence suggesting efficacy for HB is reviewed. A tentative biopsychologic hypothesis is offered, suggesting a potential mechanism that may underlie putative therapeutic effects of HB. Specifically, when HB is used in the context of ongoing psychotherapy, hyperventilation may facilitate generalized extinction of avoidance behaviors, resulting in therapeutic progress. Individuals high in trait absorption and social desirability who have failed to respond adequately to psychotherapy might be those most likely to respond to HB. Recommendations for future research directions examining the therapeutic potential of HB are offered.

 

Timothy D. Brewerton, James E. Eyerman, Pamela Cappetta, Michael C. Mithoefer — Long-term abstinence following Holotropic Breathwork as adjunctive treatment of substance use disorders and related psychiatric comorbidity

Addictions remain challenging conditions despite various promising traditional approaches. Although complete, long-term abstinence may be ideal, its attainment remains elusive. Many recovering addicts and clinicians stress the importance of spiritual issues in recovery, and 12-step programs such as AA are well-known approaches that embrace this philosophy. Holotropic Breathwork (HB) is another powerful, spiritually oriented approach to self-exploration and healing that integrates insights from modern consciousness research, anthropology, depth psychologies, transpersonal psychology, Eastern spiritual practices, and many mystical traditions. HB offers the addict many opportunities that may enhance addiction treatment, including entering non-ordinary states of consciousness to seek healing and wisdom via a natural, non-addictive method, a direct experience of one’s Higher Power, and for physical and emotional catharsis associated with stress and prior trauma. We report the successful use of HB in 4 cases in which complete abstinence was obtained and maintained for extended periods of time (2–19 years).

 

Bruce H. Friedman — An autonomic flexibility – neurovisceral integration model of anxiety and cardiac vagal tone

Research on heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac vagal tone, and their relationship to anxiety is reviewed in the context of the autonomic flexibility and neurovisceral integration models of adaptive functioning. These perspectives address the qualities of response flexibility and inhibition across multiple levels, incorporating central and autonomic nervous system mechanisms of environmental engagement, as well as principles derived from non-linear dynamics. These models predict reduced HRV and vagal tone in anxiety, and the literature has generally supported this prediction, with exceptions as are noted. State, trait, and clinical expressions of anxiety are considered, along with the clinical, methodological, and theoretical implications of this research. A portrayal of anxiety as a restricted response range across biological and behavioral realms of functioning is drawn from the literature on anxiety and HRV.

 

Patricia L. Gerbarg, Richard P. Brown — Yoga: A breath of relief for Hurricane Katrina refugees

Hurricane Katrina survivors need help rebuilding their mental health as well as their homes and lives. That’s why 17 teachers trained in a disaster-specific yoga breathing intervention traveled South just days after the storm. Yoga-based trauma relief programs are a cost-effective way to rapidly relieve posttraumatic stress symptoms and depression in populations affected by disasters. Experience from the 2001 World Trade Center attacks and December 2004 tsunami show these programs can help patients of all ages, with minimal risk. This article describes two programs shown to ameliorate anxiety, depression, insomnia, hyperarousal and re-experiencing (flashbacks) in survivors of war, terrorism, and natural disasters. We present a neurophysiologic model to explain how yoga breathing could have these effects.

 

Iker Puente — A quasi-experimental study of Holorenic Breathwork in a psychotherapeutical context: preliminary results

The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of Holorenic Breathwork (HrnB), a pro-longed, voluntary hyperventilation procedure, on certain personality properties, meaning of life and levels of dis-tress. A total of 62 subjects, aged 18-35 years, were compared using a repeated measures design. The experimen-tal group (N=31) participated for the first time in a workshop where the hyperventilation procedure was used. Measures were taken before and after the workshop (one week and one month later). The control group subjects (N=31) did not receive any alternative treatment. The tests used were the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-R-90), the Purpose in Life Test (PLT) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R). In the experimen-tal group, there was a significant reduction in the Global Severity Index of the SCL-R-90, and a significant in-crease in the meaning of life (PLT), Self-directedness, Cooperativeness and Self-transcendence (TCI-R) one week and one month after the workshop.

 

Iker Puente, Santiago Estaún — Does hiperventilation work? A preliminary study on the effects of Holotropic Breathwork

The purpose of the present study is to explore the effects of the Holotropic Breathwork, in combination with meditation, in the context of a weeklong workshop called “Insight and Opening. This weeklong retreat combines four Holotropic Breathwork sessions, Vipassana meditation, and formal teachings.

 

Iker Puente, Santiago Estaún — Temporal stability of the changes produced by the holorenic breathwork in a psychotherapeutical context.

To analyse the effects of the holorenic breathwork (HB), in the context of a experiential workshop, the “Workshop on Experiencing the Integration of One´s Death”. This study analyse: a) the effects of the HB in levels of distress, meaning of life and certain personality properties, measured with different psychometric test; b) the temporal stability of the possible changes produced by the HB.

 

Iker Puente — Effects of Holotropic Breathwork in personal orientation, levels of distress, meaning of life and death anxiety in the context of a weeklong  workshop: a pilot study

The purpose of the present study was to explore the effects of Holotropic Breathwork (HB), on levels of distress, meaning of life, death anxiety and personal orientation in a young adult sample in the context of a weeklong workshop, and also the subjective effects and persistent effects of HB. A single group, Pre-Post test design, with three follow-ups (1, 6 months and 12 months after the workshop) was used. A total of 29 subjects, aged 18-35 years, participated in the study. The tests used were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Purpose in Life Test (PIL), the Death Anxiety Scale (DAS), the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the States of Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Brief Persisting Effects Questionnaire (BPEQ). Measures were taken before and after the workshop (four weeks, and 6 months later, for the BSI, PLT, POI and DAS, and 12 months after, for the BPEQ) and during the workshop (for the SCQ). No significant differences were found one month after the workshop. Significant increases of Temporal Competency scale, and in 5 subscales of the PEQ were found six months after the weeklong workshop. HB also occasioned mystical-type or peak experiences in 6 participants. At 12 months, volunteers rated the HB experience as having substantial personal meaning and spiritual significance, and attributed to the experience an increase of personal wellbeing and life satisfaction.

 

Iker Puente — Holotropic Breathwork can occasion mystical experiences in the context of a daylong workshop

The purpose of the present study was to explore the subjective effects of Holotropic Breathwork (HB), specifically looking at the incidence of mystical experiences or peak expe-riences, in a Russian sample in the context of a daylong workshop. A single group design was used. A total of 134 subjects, aged 18-64 years, participated in the study. The States of Conscious-ness Questionnaire (SCQ) was administered to determine the incidence of mystical or peak expe-riences. Thirteen of the 134 participants (9.7%) met criteria for a “complete” mystical experience. The higher scores were found in deeply felt positive mood, transcendence of time and space and internal unity subscales of the SCQ. We found similar scores in the CEC to those found in a pre-vious study in people under the influence of 5mg/70kg and 10mg/70kg of psilocybin.

 

Julio Cervantes, Iker Puente — Effects of Holorenic Breathwork on anxiety and heart rate variability: preliminary results

The purpose of this pilot study was to examine changes in physiological and psychological measures in a group of healthy volunteers following participation in a Holorenic Breathwork (HrcB) session. A single group, pretest/posttest design was used. A total of 11 subjects, aged 30-47 participated in the study. Inclusion criteria were as follows: +18 years, Spanish speaking and no know-diagnosed mental disorder. The intervention consists in a single HrcB session. The psychological measures included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Physiological measures included the HRV. Participants completed the psychological assessments and provided a HRV measure at baseline (pre-HB), and within 15-30 minutes after the HB session (post-HB). Significant improvements in HRV, as well as reductions in the state anxiety level, were observed from baseline to post-HB. Reductions in state anxiety levels were associated with reductions in the HRV levels. Thus, positive improvements in levels of anxiety were associated with increased HRV levels.

 

E.A. Burykh — Interaction of hypocapnia, hypoxia, brain blood flow, and brain electrical activity in voluntary hyperventilation in humans

Changes in various physiological measures in voluntary hyperventilation lasting three minutes or more in humans were studied and compared. Three-minute hyperventilation, in which the rate of external ventilation increased by an average factor of 4.5–5, produced similar phasic changes in central and brain hemodynamics. The rate of circulation, indicated by rheographic data, initially increased during hyperventilation, reaching a maximum at 1–2 min of the test; there was then a reduction, to a minimum 2–3 min after the end of the test; this was followed by a further slow increase. The rate of cerebral blood flow during all 3 min of hyperventilation remained elevated in most subjects as compared with baseline and decreased during the 5 min following the end of the test. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension changed differently – there was a decrease to a minimum (about 25 mmHg) by the end of the test, lasting 1 min from the end of the test, this being followed by an increase to a level of 90% of baseline at 5 min after the test. Blood oxygen saturation remained at 98–100% during the test, decreasing to about 90% 5 min after the test; this, along with the decrease in cerebral blood flow, was a factor producing brain hypoxia. In different subjects, changes in the spectral power of oscillations in different EEG ranges on hyperventilation were “mirrored” to different extents by the dynamics of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension. The duration and repetition of hyperventilation were important factors for understanding the interaction between brain hemodynamics, hypocapnia, hypoxia, and brain electrical activity. After several repetitions of 3-min hyperventilation over a period of 1 h, the increasing brain blood flow could decrease significantly on the background of relatively small changes in brain electrical activity. The data presented here were assessed from the point of view of the important role of brain tissue oxygen utilization mechanisms in adaptation to hypoxia and hypocapnia.

 

P.C. van Rijen, P.R. Luyten, J.W. Berkelbach van der Sprenkel, V. Kraaier, A.C. van Huffelen, A.F. Tulleken, J.A. den Hollander — H and P NMR measurement of cerebral lactate, high-energy phosphate levels, and pH in humans during voluntary hyperventilation: associated EEG, capnographic,and doppler findings

In order to explore the sensitivity of spatially resolved H and P NMR spectroscopy on a whole-body NMR instrument, cerebral metabolic changes in human volunteers were measured during hyperventilation provocation. During hyperventilation the flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery decreased significantly and the EEG showed a marked increase in slow activity. H NMR spectra revealed an increase in cerebral lactate concentration. P NMR spectra showed no changes in ATP or PCr peak heights, but a shift toward tissue alkalosis was derived from changes in Pi chemical shift. During subsequent recovery, lactate concentration decreased and a slight intracellular acidosis was detected. In three experiments broadening of the lactate resonance peak resulted in separation into two components at 1.32 and 1.48 ppm, in which the latter signal possibly arose from alanine.

 

Seymour S. Kety, Carl F. Schmid — The effects of active and passive hyperventilation on cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen consumption, cardiac output, and blood pressure of normal young men

We have carried out these measurements in normal young men in the recumbent position at sea level and under 3 conditions, viz., at rest, during voluntary hyperventilation, and during approximately equal hyperventilation produced by a positive pressure resuscitating device, the General Electric Pneumolator. The experiments have been extended subsequently to conditions other than hyperventilation, which was chosen for first study because of the possible immediate military value of the information.

 

Angela Navarrete-Opazo, Gordon S. Mitchell — Therapeutic potential of intermittent hypoxia: a matter of dose

Intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been the subject of considerable research in recent years, and triggers a bewildering array of both detrimental and beneficial effects in multiple physiological systems. Here, we review the extensive literature concerning IH and its impact on the respiratory, cardiovascular, immune, metabolic, bone, and nervous systems. One major goal is to define relevant IH characteristics leading to safe, protective, and/or therapeutic effects vs. pathogenesis.

 

C.Bass — Hyperventilation syndrome: a chimera?

There is now an impressive body of research to suggest that the concept of a discrete hyperventilation syndrome is no longer tenable. The evidence for this has been carefully gathered and the scientific studies have employed innovative methodological techniques and have introduced a key psychological dimension. Both have led to a greater understanding of the respiratory correlates of anxiety, but in the process have revealed the «hyperventilation syndrome» to be a chimera. Furthermore, there is no evidence to support the view that panic attacks and hyperventilation are synonymous: on the contrary, hyperventilation rarely accompanies panic and, when it does, it is more likely to be a consequence than a cause of the panic. Finally, there is no evidence that «breathing therapy» works by normalizing pCO2; its nonspecific effects on anxiety appear to be mediated in part by slowing respiratory rate. Further research in this field might be more profitably focused on the nature of the association between anxiety disorders and organic lung disease, especially asthma.

 

Alicia E. Meuret,T, Thomas Ritz, Frank H. Wilhelm, Walton T. Roth — Voluntary hyperventilation in the treatment of panic disorder — functions of hyperventilation, their implications for breathing training, and recommendations for standardization

Hyperventilation has numerous theoretical and empirical links to anxiety and panic. Voluntary hyperventilation (VH) tests have been applied experimentally to understand psychological and physiological mechanisms that produce and maintain anxiety, and therapeutically in the treatment of anxiety disorders. From the theoretical perspective of hyperventilation theories of anxiety, VH is useful diagnostically to the clinician and educationally to the patient. From the theoretical perspective of cognitive-behavior therapy, VH is a way to expose patients with panic disorder to sensations associated with panic and to activate catastrophic cognitions that need restructuring. Here we review panic disorder treatment studies using breathing training that have included VH. We differentiate the roles of VH in diagnosis, education about symptoms, training of breathing strategies, interoceptive exposure, and outcome measurement — discussing methodological issues specific to these roles and VH test reliability and validity. We propose how VH procedures might be standardized in future studies.

 

Michael J. Zvolensky and Georg H. Eifert — A review of psychological factors/processes affecting anxious responding during voluntary hyperventilation and inhalations of carbon dioxide-enriched air

Despite advances in our understanding of the nature of anxiety-related responding during periods of elevated bodily arousal, it is not necessarily evident by what psychological mechanisms anxiety is produced and maintained. To address this issue, researchers have increasingly employed biological challenge procedures to examine how psychological factors affect anxious responding during elevated bodily arousal. Of the challenging procedures, hyperventilation and inhalations of carbon dioxide-enriched air have been among the most frequently employed, and a relatively large body of literature using these procedures has now accumulated. Unfortunately, existing reviews do not comprehensively examine findings from hyperventilation and inhalations of carbon dioxide studies, and only rarely the methodological issues specific to these studies. To address these issues, we review the voluntary hyperventilation and carbon dioxide-enriched air literature in order to identify the primary methodological issues/limitations of this research and address the extent to which psychological variables influence anxious responding to such challenges. Overall, we conclude challenge research is a promising paradigm to examine the influence of psychological variables in anxious responding, and that such work will likely be enhanced with greater attention to psychological process issues.

 

Hornsveld HK, Garssen B, Dop MJ, van Spiegel PI, de Haes JC — Double-blind placebo-controlled study of the hyperventilation provocation test and the validity of the hyperventilation syndrome

Hyperventilation syndrome (HVS) describes a set of somatic and psychological symptoms thought to result from episodic or chronic hyperventilation. Recognition of symptoms during the hyperventilation provocation test (HVPT) is the most widely used criterion for diagnosis of HVS. We have investigated the validity of the HVPT and of the concept of HVS.